Medved, excellent explanation!
One of my choices behind halogen is that during burn out its impossible for an internal short circuit arc like with an standard incandescent bulb. Not sure where the 230 volt ones rank. And while the incan may have fuse leads, their time current curve may not be enough to prevent arc tube rupture or temporary over driving of the MV lamp. Not sure how US self balalsted MVs did away with this issue.
The 120V makes the arc way less likely to even occur and if so, it gets way easier extinguished. So the damage is either none at all, pr way less severe (so the lamp just stops lighting and that is all). Usually a single fuse within the lamp base is more than enough to ensure this.
The 230V makes the arcs way more potent, so way more difficult to extinguish.
In the incandescents it means not only the different gas fill (more Nitrogen in it, even when it is hurting the efficacy*lifetime figure).
As a safety measure for the EOL arcing, two fuses, each in one lead are must and even that is in some circumstances not enough to prevent the fat arc from blowing off the bulb (in installations with low impedance, so high short circuit currents).
The halogens are not more robust intinsically, but often the design features some measures against the EOL arc already within the bulb (e.g. multiple filament compartments preventing a single arc to spread between the inputs, tungsten filament section fused into the glass acting like an additional fuse,...)
But because they are smaller, the halogens tend to create the arc as often as the normal Argon/Nitrogen incandescents do. And there are even quite a few even 120V halogen models, which are notorious for liking to explode at the EOL with severe arcing marks. Something I've never heard of with the standard incandescents on 120V.
For the SBMV the incandescent part uses similar features as the standard incandescents: Nitrogen in the gas fill, fuses in the socket.
However with the halogen ballasted ones, I'm not sure, but there their origin is quite significant factor (most of them are made in China...)