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200A GE panel for residential/commercial 120/240 service

200A GE panel for residential/commercial 120/240 service

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Just installed this in a new home being built, GE's "PowerMark Gold" line. Notice all of the unused breaker spaces, this home will be 1600 sq ft. when finished and would typically have a 100A service installed, but the homeowner specifically requested 200A

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rjluna2
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Nov 27, 2017 at 06:07 AM Author: rjluna2
I see this one has center tapped line here.

Pretty, please no more Chinese failure.

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Nov 27, 2017 at 12:33 PM Author: Bert
I hate the 120/240 labels that shows with the door closed.
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Nov 27, 2017 at 01:12 PM Author: BlueHalide
@rjluna2 ,This is the typical residential service which is split-phase 120/240 3-wire, yes the transformer's secondary starts out as single phase 240v to neutral, they center-tap a neutral on that secondary which yields two 120v legs that are 180 degrees out of phase with each other. Each "hot" leg to neutral is 120v, and both 120v legs yield 240v between them without neutral.

The voltage stickers now come with the GE panels, so I just stick them on anyways. The homeowner can peel them off if he wants
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Nov 27, 2017 at 01:19 PM Author: BlueHalide
Correction; the split-phase 120/240 service is common only for single-family residences/houses, apartment buildings and multi-unit dwellings like condominiums commonly use the 3-phase 208Y/120 service with each unit receiving only two phases and a neutral. Ive also seen delta high-leg 120/208/240 services on very large apartment complexes, but those are uncommon
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Nov 27, 2017 at 01:28 PM Author: wattMaster
I wonder why 208 volts is common for apartments, as you need to use a bigger wire to deliver the same power.

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Nov 27, 2017 at 02:18 PM Author: Roi_hartmann

I wonder why 208 volts is common for apartments, as you need to use a bigger wire to deliver the same power.

I feel the whole thing with such many different voltages and phase angles very complicated.

Aamulla aurinko, illalla AIRAM

streetlight98
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Nov 27, 2017 at 04:40 PM Author: streetlight98
@ Wattmaster: 208V is three-phase and three-phase power is way more efficient than single phase. But it's silly to use 3ph in a single family home since the power demand is not there. To get 120V from 240V, you simply divide the 240V in half since there's only two wires (split phase). the reason you get 120V from 208V is because they're 120 degrees (one third of a sine wave) out of phase from each other, so instead of dividing by two, you divide by the square root of three (208/(Sqrt 3)=120). Same logic applies when getting 277V from 480V 3 phase. The 277V is hot-to-neutral and the 480V is hot-to-hot.

Actually, if you really want to think about it, all grid-generated power is three phase. Any single phase application are just using one leg of the three phase system. All the primary lines on the tops of the utility poles are part of 3-phase circuits, but since the transformer for a 120/240V set-up only uses one primary wire, it creates a single phase circuit. When there's only one primary (or two) on the top of the pole instead of three, the other primary line(s) are going down another street or another neighborhood entirely. Any road in a commercial/industrial area will always have all three primary lines (sometimes more, the remainders would be a separate 3ph primary circuit) since you need all three primary lines to generate 3ph secondary power.

But anyway, that's why 208V is way more common than 240V in commercial places. Anywhere that can't use 120/208 uses 277/480 instead and uses step-down transformers to get 120/208V service. 120/208/240V service is actually a thing... it's called a high-leg delta. With normal 208v 3ph delta, you'd get 208 across any two legs. With high-leg delta, when you take one of the legs and put it across either of the others, you get 240V. If you drew a schematic it would look like an isosceles triangle, with one side longer than the other two. That's your 240V side. To get the 120V, that "high leg" is center-taped. That's how you get 120/208/240V service in a nutshell. The awesome part about 3ph is that no transformers are needed for certain voltages, which cuts expense and also saves space in the building.

***If anything I said is incorrect, someone please make note of it here. By no means am I an expert in 3-phase. This is just written to the best of my knowledge.***

Please check out my newly-updated website! McCann Lighting Company is where my street light collection is displayed in detail.

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Nov 27, 2017 at 04:56 PM Author: BlueHalide
The same size cables are used for both 208v and 240v of the same current capacity because the slightly higher current draw due to the lower voltage really is negligible. Most appliances like air conditioners and electric water heaters are actually rated for both 208 and 240
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Nov 27, 2017 at 05:07 PM Author: BlueHalide
Excellent description streetlight98, in regards to the high-leg delta service, 240v is obtained between any two of the three (no neutral), phase A and B are 120v to neutral, and phase C (the "high leg") is 208v to neutral. This service has fallen out of popularity significantly to the Y type service (208/120 and 480/277). Apprentice electricians occasionally make the mistake of of installing a single pole 120v circuit on the high-leg, the 120v equipment is plugged in and subsequently damaged by the 208v.
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Nov 27, 2017 at 05:39 PM Author: sox35
I will never get the hang of American electrics

Here, it's so simple - residential supplies are always 230V (240V) single phase, larger premises are supplied at 400/230V (415/240V) 3-phase, although really large places sometimes have an 11kV substation on site with a standard 3-phase output.

(Figures in brackets are the old voltages before the EU standards came into effect, although they are nominal - we get 245V here as we're right next to a substation).

Why do you lot the other side of the pond make things so complicated

Ria in Aberdeen
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Nov 27, 2017 at 07:02 PM Author: BlueHalide
Good question, one that I do not know the entire answer to, though I imagine it has something to do with the fact that our grid uses predominantly primary voltages (7200/12,600v) throughout, even in residential areas, and makes use of many small (10-37KvA) transformers right at the point of use. I have a 7200v primary line running through my yard, this enables many different transformer/secondary voltage options for different customers needs since the high voltage primary is right there outside the building.

From what I understand the U.K's grid is most made up of the secondary 400/230v, with fewer, much larger transformers feeding hundreds of homes. You could be as much as a mile away from any HV primary lines. Correct me if I am wrong.

If we used the U.K's 400/240 system, my job would be sooooo much easier! Personally, I think that is the way to go when designing a grid/distribution system. I have worked in buildings with two services (both 208Y/120 and 480Y/277) all panels for both services are in one room and of course nothing is labeled as to which panel is which service, to make matters even more confusing, the same place had 660v step up transformers on the 480v service as well as 240v step up transformers on the 208v service, there was literally 8 different voltages in that building.

We are also the last country to still use the imperial system of measurements
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Nov 27, 2017 at 07:09 PM Author: sox35

We are also the last country to still use the imperial system of measurements


Now THAT is one thing I truly miss. I still think in imperial measurements and degrees F for temperature. It annoys the hell out of me when the weather forecasters on TV keep banging on about it will be 5 deg C overnight, what the **** is that..?

We're rarely any great distance from a substation, in fact being in the city centre here we have two that we can see from the kitchen and living room windows. Maybe in rural areas they can be further away, but you often see small post-top transformers stepping down from an 11kV overhead line to feed a few scattered houses out in the countryside.

Ria in Aberdeen
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Nov 27, 2017 at 07:32 PM Author: sol
At my place of work (in Canada, which has different voltages than the USA on 3-phase), we have 600V phase-to-phase. Each leg to neutral gives 347V, used for lighting while the 600V is for motors. There are also step-down transformers for 208/120 for the rest of the smaller circuits, including the wall sockets. As far as I know, 480/277V is next to nonexistent in Canada.

Now, does that mean that before the nominal voltage was increased from 110V to 120V, that instead of 208V, we only had 190V ? (And for our highest voltages, 550V and 317V ?)

In Canada, we officially use metric, but a lot of people still use the imperial measures, especially in clothing and construction. While on the subject, it would have been nice if North America adopted the ISO paper format (A4 instead of Letter, A3 instead of Ledger, etc) but that's another story for another time....
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Nov 27, 2017 at 08:45 PM Author: BlueHalide
Occasionally I will see 3-phase gear with labeling that it is also rated for 347v, these are usually safety switch disconnects and the like, we however dont have that service in the US.
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Nov 27, 2017 at 10:39 PM Author: Roi_hartmann

Good question, one that I do not know the entire answer to, though I imagine it has something to do with the fact that our grid uses predominantly primary voltages (7200/12,600v) throughout, even in residential areas, and makes use of many small (10-37KvA) transformers right at the point of use. I have a 7200v primary line running through my yard, this enables many different transformer/secondary voltage options for different customers needs since the high voltage primary is right there outside the building.

From what I understand the U.K's grid is most made up of the secondary 400/230v, with fewer, much larger transformers feeding hundreds of homes. You could be as much as a mile away from any HV primary lines. Correct me if I am wrong.

If we used the U.K's 400/240 system, my job would be sooooo much easier! Personally, I think that is the way to go when designing a grid/distribution system. I have worked in buildings with two services (both 208Y/120 and 480Y/277) all panels for both services are in one room and of course nothing is labeled as to which panel is which service, to make matters even more confusing, the same place had 660v step up transformers on the 480v service as well as 240v step up transformers on the 208v service, there was literally 8 different voltages in that building.

We are also the last country to still use the imperial system of measurements


Same thing here, fewer transformers with higher voltage. I think the primary voltage is either 20,5kv or 11kv for some smaller units. Rural area can also use 40kv for long lines.

Another noticeable difference is that overhead powerlines are only used for rural areas in here. Use of those in city area never was popular and theyr popularity in suburbs declined in 70's in favour or burrued cables.

Aamulla aurinko, illalla AIRAM

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Nov 28, 2017 at 12:10 AM Author: Lodge

Occasionally I will see 3-phase gear with labeling that it is also rated for 347v, these are usually safety switch disconnects and the like, we however dont have that service in the US.


The manufacture is smart doing this, because if it's rated to 347 which is common in Canada, it will also pass any standards for 277 which is common in the USA, so they don't need to carry two different product lines, and it just simplifies everything north of the boarder, really I've seen it a hundred times the engineers or designer find a pretty switch that they love and order in boxes full of them only to find out they are only rated to 277 so we can't install them as most commercial lighting here is 347 and it's a code violation so they then have to go find something not as pretty, and cry quietly in the corner after the power company tells them, they won't supply 277 just because they want to use there pretty switches, I guess I shouldn't be the jerk that suggest they call them every time, but they make is so easy..
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Nov 28, 2017 at 01:58 AM Author: mima

From what I understand the U.K's grid is most made up of the secondary 400/230v, with fewer, much larger transformers feeding hundreds of homes. You could be as much as a mile away from any HV primary lines. Correct me if I am wrong.


This is the way it works in I think the whole Europe. In the countries I visited (France, Spain, Italy, Switzerland which is my home, Austria, Germany, Croatia, UK) that was the common practice, with big buildings sometimes being connected directly to the medium voltage grid and having their own stepdown transformer. But after the stepdown transformer is all 380 (or 400)V 3 phase/230V single phase.

Here in Switzerland the MV grid is usually 15 kV and nearly all homes (being apartments or single homes) are fed with 380V 3 phase, having 230V between a single phase and the neutral. In Italy they have 20 kV for the medium voltage grid and most homes are fed with single phase 230V supply.

Gimme a discharge lamp and a humming ballast Grin

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Dec 02, 2017 at 03:44 PM Author: Lumex120
Why the rectangular non-GFCI outlet? I have seen these in stores and don't understand the reason behind them.

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Dec 02, 2017 at 04:48 PM Author: Beta 5

Now THAT is one thing I truly miss. I still think in imperial measurements and degrees F for temperature. It annoys the hell out of me when the weather forecasters on TV keep banging on about it will be 5 deg C overnight, what the **** is that..?



About as cold as the fridge

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Dec 02, 2017 at 05:28 PM Author: sol

Why the rectangular non-GFCI outlet? I have seen these in stores and don't understand the reason behind them.


Those are Decora outlets. They are higher end (and more expensive) to match the Decora rocker switches. They have no other function. Manufacturers adopted the Decora form factor because there is enough room on the faceplate for the test/reset buttons.
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Dec 02, 2017 at 06:48 PM Author: streetlight98
The only advantage of decora is that you'll only ever need one style faceplate. I do like the decora outlets over duplex but I do not like decora switches. Decora is more expensive anyway so works for me lol. Sometimes decora switches are convenient though since you can turn the lights on with your elbow if your hand are full lol. Can do that with toggle too but easier with decora because of the larger area.

Please check out my newly-updated website! McCann Lighting Company is where my street light collection is displayed in detail.

sol
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Dec 02, 2017 at 08:40 PM Author: sol
Yes, I like Decora switches for the ease of use despite the higher price tag.

One anecdote on them is the local funeral home. Now, a funeral home is a place where lots of people are standing leading to leaning on walls. If you have a Decora switch there, it will toggle. I'm not sure why they insisted on Decora there, but they did and found a way to diminish the problem. They stacked three plates thick and used extra long screws. It doesn't look as bad as it sounds, and makes for a suitable recess so a casually leaning person won't accidentally toggle the switch.
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Dec 02, 2017 at 09:39 PM Author: BlueHalide
We use Decora exclusively on all new construction, according to the master electrician I work for "the standard toggle switches and duplex outlets look tacky and cheap", so we use decora on every single new construction residential job, and commercial jobs like office buildings get the gray decora switches and outlets with the stainless steel faceplate, which actually looks very professional.

And of course repair jobs in existing homes and buildings get receptacles of the type already installed so they all match
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Dec 02, 2017 at 09:43 PM Author: streetlight98
Hmm interesting fix to the problem. I've seen these for toggle switches but haven't seen any decora version:



Probably because the guards are not very decora(tive) lol. They do the job though... They also make versions that prevent the switch from being flipped on (or off). I have one of those that I use in some instances where I'm on jobs where I have the luxury of working on lights while they're off but there is still foot traffic and shutting off the breaker would disturb other rooms. Not as secure as a breaker lockout/tagout but atleast the person has to go through a decent amount of effort to remove the guard to flip the switch on. I've seen them used when a switch is no longer needed too (i.e. replacing switch-controlled exterior lighting with dusk-to-dawn lighting or static indoor lights with occupancy-controlled lighting). Personally I would remove the switch and install a blank in that case but I guess in some cases it's nice to still be able to resort to the switch when all else fails...

Please check out my newly-updated website! McCann Lighting Company is where my street light collection is displayed in detail.

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Dec 02, 2017 at 09:50 PM Author: streetlight98
@ bluehalide: I agree on the stainless/gray combo. I love the look of it. I also like the classic stainless/brown color combo but I know it's a dated 60s-70s look to most lol. At my work we use all standard duplex/toggle white devices and plates unless otherwise requested by the contractor/homeowner. We don't stock decora in the shop so when we do get a request for one, either the homeowner buys their own or we order them special just for that job. Ditto for the "connected home" devices like the USB/outlet combos and "fancy" wireless switches. I work for a small business (but decent sized for a small business, with about 15 of us) so we're all about whatever is the cheapest. In general we use the P&S Legrand devices and Leviton faceplates but if he can save a few cents with another brand when he does his $10K monthly order, the boss will jump on the opportunity. So often we end up with three or four brands on the same job, and none are identical to the others so I always try to at least match the brands by room but the average person would never pick up on the slight differences between P&S, Cooper, and Leviton devices and faceplates lol.

Please check out my newly-updated website! McCann Lighting Company is where my street light collection is displayed in detail.

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Dec 03, 2017 at 02:12 AM Author: Ash
So over there Legrand got hold of P&S ?

Here i use Bticino, they too are now part of Legrand. Expensive but currently the highest grade stuff i can get
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Dec 03, 2017 at 06:14 AM Author: sol

Hmm interesting fix to the problem. I've seen these for toggle switches but haven't seen any decora version:

Probably because the guards are not very decora(tive) lol. They do the job though...


Yes, and in this funeral home, the owners are very strict on appearance, always keeping up with the paint, the carpeting, etc. They even have two baseboards, one standard and one flat on the carpet so that chairs placed against the wall will not mark either the baseboard or the wall. (Side note : they offer the same level of service as their appearance shows, from what I've dealt with them and what I hear in the community.)
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Dec 03, 2017 at 03:16 PM Author: BlueHalide
The electrical company I work for is even smaller, three employees and the owner (master electrician who holds the license). Its interesting to see how different companies favor different brands and styles, I can only assume we use exclusively decora (Legrand) as the owner probably thinks the different components we use makes us stand out from other competitors. We also only install Square D's QO panels, never their cheaper "homeline". The GE panel above is typically our second choice if the customer doesnt want to spend $350 on a breaker panel, the one above costs about $200. We never use Siemens/ITE, Cutler Hammer/Eaton, or Leviton for breaker panels, not sure why.
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Dec 03, 2017 at 07:46 PM Author: streetlight98
The company I work for is one big hack job lol. The owner is a real nice guy but he's a cheap son of a gun (that's how he's done so well for himself lol). Honestly I think the reason we are so generic (white everything) is because it's the cheapest and because it helps us blend in lol. The contractors we do work for are just as big of hacks as we are so they don't care. At this point the owner has his network of people we do work for so quality is of absolutely no concern; just speed and saving money at every point possible. It's too bad since that's not my philosophy at all but it's experience for me and once I become licensed in four years I will explore other avenues...

The company I work for is all about back-stabbing receptacles and switches and using stab-in ports instead of wirenuts wherever possible (and BTW we don't pigtail receptacles, we wire the circuit through the receptacle, which pisses off a lot of "real" electricians lol). I personally will use pigtail connections to a receptacle in a commercial environment when a mud ring is used on a 4x4 box (since there's plenty of room for it) but in a residential application there's not enough room, especially with 12 wire.

For panels we also exclusively use Square D, which really surprises me, given all the other shortcuts we take. Under special circumstances we will install another brand panel (at the client's request I assume) but we stock nothing but Square D for panels and disconnects. For light bulbs we have mostly Greenlite LED products but we have a mishmosh of various brands of oldschool lighting. He just buys whatever is cheapest. But Square D has always been consistent for whatever reason. Probably so we don't need to worry about matching breakers. Only SD breakers will fit a SD panel but SD breakers will fit in most other panels so we can just stock SD breakers. We do have random other breakers upstairs on a loft with a blanket of dust on them *just in case* though... In Rhode Island we never have issues with matching breaker brands in panels but in Connecticut we have had issues with inspectors failing us for using Square D breakers in a non-Square D panel so we had to go back and change them. I disagree with using different brand breakers from the brand of the panel, and often times there's a sticker right on the panel saying the warranty is void if other brand's breakers are used. The electricians I work with tell me it's just a marketing ploy for the panel company to sell you their breakers, which I could see being true, but still, if not just for the sake of aesthetics, I wouldn't mix the breaker/panel brands.

Another thing of interest is that we do not use junction boxes for outdoor lights, which is bizarre to me. Instead, we just install the fixtures (or the fixture's bracket, if it has one) directly to the house (with one of those vinyl fixture blocks, but no box!). My house was built in 2003 and HAS boxes for all the outside lights. And I've always been told all electrical splices must be in a listed enclosure. Last I checked, between the siding and plywood sheathing is not a listed enclosure. But once again they all assure me that it's all legit and I'm full of sh*t...

Please check out my newly-updated website! McCann Lighting Company is where my street light collection is displayed in detail.

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Dec 03, 2017 at 07:52 PM Author: sol


For panels we also exclusively use Square D, which really surprises me, given all the other shortcuts we take.



Maybe he has shares in Square D...
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Dec 03, 2017 at 08:38 PM Author: wattMaster
The Solution: Get the official electric code book, and show them the part that says that splices need a junction box.

SLS! <click

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Dec 03, 2017 at 08:58 PM Author: funkybulb
One thing about ITE, cutler hammer and Eaton. If u look at history they bought
Up sylvania breaker lines, and some of
challengers breaker, westinghouse,
ITT, few other brands over years,
It created a long list of problems
When you need to replace breakers
In the future. And if be another brand
Later. SD been around and stuck with
There products, same for GE the last 50
Years with out much design changes until
Half inch wide breakers came out using same
Space as 1 inch wide GEs, also
SD QO series are DC rated up to 48 volts
Use for some solar home installs.

No LED gadgets, spins too slowly.  Gotta  love preheat and MV. let the lights keep my meter spinning.

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Dec 03, 2017 at 09:04 PM Author: Ash
In European panels, there isn't such requirement that the panel matches the breakers. The panel is just a box with standardised rail in it. The rail is not a current carrying part (though in some industrial settings it is used as the Earth bar), it only serves to let everything else clip on it

If the breakers are all identical, a connection comb can be used to connect the input to all of them together, which makes the work neater. Otherwise, wire jumpers are used



My preferred breakers were Merlin Gerin (before Schneider killed them off), now it is Eaton (Moeller), ABL and ABB

In the last few years, big global companies have acquired electrical equipment companies across the world, putting their name on it. However, the same big name can stand for different things here and there...

Schneider - acquired Merlin Gerin in France and Square D in the US

Eaton - acquired Moeller in Germany and Cuttler/Hammer in the US

Merlin Gerin Multi9 were some of the very best equipment out there. Allthough the new Schneider stuff is all based on the same designs (the Multi9 stuff now called Acti9), its not quite the same. I seen some pics of new US Square D stuff, which reminds of Acti9 in its external appearance, so could they be Acti9 inside ?

Interestingly, most of the cheap Chinese noname breakers are clones of the older versions of the Multi9. Their quality is nowhere near the real thing though

Moeller are great equipment too. The breakers haven't changed at all since they became Eaton, only the etch changed. I dont think there is any similarity between Moeller-Eaton and Cutler Hammer-Eaton devices

I am not aware of whether ABL and ABB have anything in the US
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Dec 03, 2017 at 09:52 PM Author: Ash
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Dec 08, 2017 at 10:55 PM Author: BlueHalide
The US market is completely devoid of any cheap Chinese non-UL electrical equipment such as breakers and disconnects, they just dont exist here, I can only assume there is strict regulation in place to keep that stuff from being imported. Which is unlike the USA given our capitalism and massive trade with China. You can however purchase non-UL compliant appliances here of questionable quality and safety.
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Dec 08, 2017 at 11:06 PM Author: Cole D.
I notice here it's usually either all white toggle switches and regular receptacles, or Decora switches and regular receptacles. Decora receptacles are sometimes used but not as often. Me I prefer Decora switches but like how toggle switches are quieter and don't make the loud CLICK Decora does.

As for breaker panels usually see Square D or GE. The house next door used to have a Crouse Hinds breaker panel, not sure how old it was. Another house on my street has a Challenger panel from 1997 or so.

Collect vintage incandescent and fluorescent fixtures. Also like HID lighting and streetlights.

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Dec 09, 2017 at 06:52 PM Author: streetlight98
@ BlueHalide: From what I understand, Federal Pacific breakers are about as good quality as a non-UL Chinese electronic product. My boss is a cheap son of a gun and even he won't use those things. Too many houses with those have burned down...

On a side note, my friend (coworker) who I recently saved some street lights was surprised when I told him street lights carry no safety listings whatsoever. Being an electrician, he's used to everything being UL, CSA, and/or ETL listed and was shocked that street lights have none of that. While I'm not sure of actual code requirements regarding safety listings, my best guess is that street lights are considered "utility grade" fixtures installed away from people and property and are supposed to be serviced only by qualified personnel (but then again, so isn't any electrical equipment) so any safety listing is moot. The exception being the rare instance a street light is installed on residential property or on a building or something, in which case special UL/CSA listing options are available by manufacturers which often entail internal fusing and no exposed live parts (covered terminal block, covered ballast coils, etc.). It's interesting how street lights are one of the few electrical devices that have gotten away with out requiring a safety listing but I've noticed most LED street lights come standard with UL and CSA listings.

Please check out my newly-updated website! McCann Lighting Company is where my street light collection is displayed in detail.

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Dec 09, 2017 at 07:01 PM Author: wattMaster
Some LED streetlights actually have an option to remove the safety listings, that might make them closer to the better HID ones.

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Dec 09, 2017 at 07:09 PM Author: streetlight98
I don't think a non-listed street light is actually any "better", it just doesn't have the extra safety features, which only get in the way for someone like a lineman, who is already suited up for high voltages, so the protection just isn't needed (not to mention the removed safety features like terminal block cover add a couple dollars to the cost of the light, which is a turn-off for a large buyer like a utility). My AEL fixture bears a CSA listing and has the terminal block cover. It's rather annoying IMO and doesn't even latch onto the terminal block anyway but I haven't removed it from the light since I want to keep it original. I could imagine a lineman with his thick gloves on getting very frustrated with the foolish thing though.

Please check out my newly-updated website! McCann Lighting Company is where my street light collection is displayed in detail.

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Dec 09, 2017 at 10:59 PM Author: BlueHalide
I will add that public electrical installations as well as utility owned and maintained equipment isn't subject to NEC as well as doesnt have to comply with the same safety mandates. Whenever I upgrade a homeowner from 100A to 200A service, the utility comes out and just reconnects the existing wimpy 1/0 AL service drop to the new 4/0 AL SE cable. (When using Aluminum service entrance conductors, 2/0 is minimum for 100A, 4/0 is minimum for 200A) so they werent even using the proper size to begin with for the original 100A service. Heck, my own house as well as 12 of my neighbors were all on a 30KvA transformer, in the middle of summer when everybody was running their air conditioning, the voltage would drop to 112v. When I called and complained they had to come out THREE different occasions to confirm the low voltage was due to high demand and an undersized transformer. They installed a 37KvA transformer (still undersized), but that additional 7KvA helped during those peak load situations. Both the Utility and municipality here goes the cheapest possible route and cuts corners whenever they can, the city installs $30 Ebay LED streetlights and sticks the corn cob LED retrofit lamps in the old 50's MV cobraheads. Our infrastructure gets a grade of D+ according to a census study.
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